Home | About me | Contact | What's new | Privacy | Search
 

San Antonio
Freeway system
Other roads
History
  Roads & other history
    Pre-Interstate routes
    Freeway system
    281/410 interchange
    Military roads
    Humble Oil station
  Historical photos
    Downtown Y
    I-10 West/US 87
    I-35/US 81 North
    I-35/US 81 South
    I-37
    Loop 410 (Part 1)
    Loop 410 (Part 2)
    Loop 410/San Pedro
    Other freeways
    Austin Highway
    Bandera/Culebra Rds
    Fredericksburg Rd
    Southside roads
    Other non-freeway
    Signs
    Maps and plans
FAQs

Search this site
 
This site is not affiliated with any official agency.


ADVERTISEMENT

Other San Antonio Area Roads
History of Local Military Roads (And "Which Military?"
)

This page last updated September 13, 2020

ADVERTISEMENT

Army convoy

Military convoy between San Antonio and Camp Bullis ca. 1935
This is on today's I-10 at UTSA Blvd. looking north
(Source: TxDOT)


Military Roads History

The military has always played a key role in the area's economy and, as a result, has often been given special attention in the area's road development, going all the way back the Spanish Colonial era. The first instance of this in modern history came in the 1930s when the need for a direct route from Kelly Field to Brooks Field emerged. To satisfy that, the county built the
Military Road (later Military Drive) to connect the two. This was essentially the first section of a loop proposed in the 1932 Arneson Plan for state highways in Bexar County. Arneson's plan noted the need to separate military and civilian traffic, and special care was taken in planning the route of his proposed loop to connect the military bases without disrupting them.

In 1937, the state acquired and improved Military Road and designated it as the first segment of Loop 13. In the early 1940s, Loop 13 was extended west from Kelly through the new San Antonio Aviation Cadet Center (later renamed Lackland AFB) to US 90 and east from Brooks to and then along WW White Road to US 90 East. WW White continued north of there along today's Springfield Road
to the Seguin Road (today's FM 78), which connected the eastern end of Fort Sam Houston to Randolph Field, thus providing more-or-less direct connectivity between the five installations. Seguin Road was sometimes called "Randolph Field Road" because of its connection to that installation.

Proposed overpass at Randolph main entrance ca. 1955
(Source: TxDOT)


Before mid '30s, Seguin Road was SH 3, the main highway between San Antonio and Houston, and therefore provided a direct major state highway connection right at Randolph's main gate. However, in the mid '30s, the state built a new route for SH 3 several miles to the south of Randolph (this route is today's I-10.) The lack of a major state highway directly connecting to Randolph concerned officials there, so they lobbied for a new route to connect the installation with nearby US 81/SH 2 (today's I-35.) Built in 1935, that route is today's SH 218/Pat Booker Road, and it provided a new high-speed link to Fort Sam Houston. It was named for Francis Pascal "Pat" Booker, an Army Air Corps captain who died in a crash in September 1936. In the 1950s, the state studied an overpass for Pat Booker Rd. over FM 78 and the adjacent railroad and into Randolph, but it never came to fruition. (Special thanks to Michael P. Hoffman for some of the history of Pat Booker Road.)

The United States' entry into WWII created a new urgency for improving roads serving the local military installations. To that end, the "Harry Wurzbach Military Highway" (sometimes referred to simply as "Military Highway") was built by the county, state, and Works Progress Administration around 1943 to directly connect Fort Sam Houston directly to Camp Bullis, which was known as Leon Springs Military Reservation at the time. Its purpose was to replace a circuitous route through city traffic from Fort Sam to Camp Bullis via US 87/Fredericksburg Road. The new road encompassed what's now Harry Wurzbach Rd., NW Military Hwy., and the stretch of today's Loop 410 in between, part of which at the time was a road named Zercher Road. This linkage is why Harry Wurzbach and NW Military bend toward each other at Loop 410. The route included overpasses where it intersected US 81 (Austin Hwy.) and US 281 (San Pedro Ave.) to safely separate the military and civilian traffic streams.

Map showing status of Harry Wurzbach Military Highway construction 1943
Also note the early proposal for Loop 410 (referred to as "Military Loop" in the notes) west of
NW Military-- it would have connected to US 87 (Fredericksburg Road) just north of Wurzbach Rd.
(Source: Texas State Library and Archives)


Also around 1943, today's Camp Bullis Road between I-10 and Camp Bullis was built by the county in cooperation with the Highway Department to improve the installation's connectivity to US 87. The road was designated "War Highway 2", one of 21 such routes around the state built to support the war effort. Those designations were dropped six months after the war ended.

Around 1952, a new segment of Loop 13 was established along today's Loop 410 from Austin Hwy. westward to Blanco Rd., expropriating part of the Harry Wurzbach Military Hwy. A year or two later, 
Loop 13 on the East Side was extended north from US 90 by straightening WW White Road and constructing an overpass over FM 78 and the railroad tracks, then continuing further north along today's Loop 410 and I-35 to meet US 81 (today's Randolph Blvd.) at Fratt, which was at today's I-35/Loop 410 interchange near Windcrest. This connected it with the other new section of Loop 13 headed west. During the war, there was a short-lived proposal for this northeastern section of the loop to head more northwesterly from its crossing at FM 78 to meet Rittiman Rd. at Salado Creek, then follow Salado Creek to Austin Hwy., and then veer northwest to meet Harry Wurzbach near today's Loop 410. It was thought this would better facilitate military traffic, but it was ultimately nixed since the state had already invested substantially in the route north to Fratt and because the increase in access for the military was determined to be marginal.




Map of the various military roads in San Antonio around 1945 overlaid on today's freeway network


While it seems like it may have been a logical extension of Loop 13 northward, Military Drive West north of US 90 was actually not part of any plans for the loop; instead, the original plan was to use Callaghan Rd. Those plans changed when it was determined that Loop 13 on the South Side had become too urbanized for easy expansion, so a new route for what would become Loop 410 was plotted further south and west of Lackland and then extended north and northeast from there. The first section of Military Drive West north of US 90 was built in 1961 to instead mainly serve new residential areas sprouting up north of Lackland. Over the years, it has been extended further north and west with an overpass for it at Loop 410 built in 1982. Coincidentally, it now runs past the San Antonio campus of the National Security Agency, providing yet another military context for the road.

Just like with Fort Sam and Camp Bullis, a need arose to connect Kelly Field and Medina Base, probably to provide a direct route to transfer atomic weapons stored at Medina to and from the airfield at Kelly. So in the mid '50s, the Medina Base Road was built. However, instead of intersecting Old Pearsall Rd. as it does today, it originally turned northeastward just west of Old Pearsall Rd., crossed Military Dr. and Leon Creek, and intersected with Westover Rd. on the west side of the airfield. While that section of the road is long gone now, the bridge at Leon Creek is still there today. The rest of the route to the west was essentially the same as it is today. When Loop 410 in that area was built around 1960, it didn't include an interchange with Medina Base Road, perhaps to limit traffic on the road in order to avoid conflicts with the military traffic, much like the intersection of Harry Wurzbach and Austin Hwy. An interchange was subsequently built in the early '70s after the weapons center at Medina was transferred to another facility near Amarillo.

Local military installations have also played a role in other local road history. The first state highway to the northeast (SH 2 to New Braunfels, Austin, and beyond) crossed through Ft. Sam Houston, which was an open post until 2001. Heading north along N New Braunfels Ave., it passed through Ft. Sam, then turned east onto Eleanor St. and followed Old Austin Rd. along the edge of the post, then crossed through Ft. Sam again near the old BAMC and onto the eventual Harry Wurzbach before continuing northeast onto Corinne Dr., Austin Hwy., and Randolph Blvd. SH 2 continued to pass through Fort Sam until the late '20s when the route was changed to use Broadway and Garraty Rd. instead.

Before the current runway was built at Kelly Field during World War II, Frio City Rd. connected to today's Old Pearsall Rd. at SW Military Dr. (looking at a map, you can see how they line up) and was part of SH 2, which was the route from San Antonio to (you guessed it) Pearsall and on to Laredo. Part of that road is now the section of General Hudnell Dr. in Port San Antonio. When Kelly Field was first established in 1917, it occupied the wedge of land between that road and the railroad tracks along Quintana. A second military field, Kelly Field #2, was built shortly thereafter in the area immediately northwest of the original site with the state highway then dividing the two. New Laredo Highway was then built in the late '30s as part of the Arenson Plan to replace the route through Kelly. During WW II, the two airfields (then known as Kelly Field and Duncan Field) were combined and expanded and the remaining road through the consolidated Kelly Field was severed in order to build a new, longer runway.

Kelly and Duncan Fields 1935
The road running between the two air fields is the old SH 2.
(Source: United States Air Force via Wikipedia)



Which Military?

San Antonio is known for having an unusual number of street naming idiosyncrasies that confound locals and visitors alike. One of those is that there are three distinct roadways with "Military" in their name: SE/SW Military Drive, Military Drive West, and NW Military Highway. Here is the breakdown of each:

  • SE/SW Military Drive: This roadway, also designated as Loop 13, is the main "drag" of the South Side of San Antonio running from S WW White Road near Loop 410 westward crossing both I-37 and I-35. It becomes Military Drive West (see next bullet) somewhere near Whitewood St. just west of Pearsall Rd. S Flores St. is the dividing line between SW and SE Military Dr.

  • Military Drive West: Military Drive West, also sometimes called W Military Dr., continues north from the end of SW Military. If you're not paying attention to the signs, you won't even notice the name change. It runs through the middle of Lackland AFB before crossing US 90 (where the Loop 13 designation ends), SH 151, and Loop 410. Presently, it ends at Potranco Rd., but another leg of Military Drive West starts a short distance north of there near Reed Rd. and runs westward crossing SH 151 again, passing south of Sea World, and crossing Loop 1604 before ending at Grosenbacher Rd. The two sections are actually part of the same planned road-- the gap between Potranco and Reed is scheduled to be built in the next few years.

  • NW Military Highway: This is a completely separate roadway that runs from Loop 410 through Castle Hills to Camp Bullis. Although it has the word "Highway" in its name, it's actually just a surface roadway and is also designated FM 1535.
Coincidentally, Harry Wurzbach is another example of the local phenomenon of multiple roads with similar names: the three roads named Wurzbach. For more information on that and on the history of the Harry Wurzbach name, see the Which Wurzbach? page.

Wurzbachs





If you found this informative, please consider making a small donation to help support it. Thanks!

This page and all its contents are Copyright 2019 by Brian Purcell

NOTICE
The information provided on this website is provided on an "as-is" basis without warranties of any kind either express or implied.  The author and his agents make no warranties or representations of any kind concerning any information contained in this website.  This website is provided only as general information.  The author expressly disclaims all liability with respect to actions taken or not taken based upon the information contained herein or with respect to any errors or omissions in such information.  All opinions expressed are strictly those of the author.  This site is not affiliated in any way with any official agency.